Dr. Talal Al Harbi
When do people revolt and why? Sudan is an example.

Violence has existed among people and accompanied them since human existence on earth. Although we may tolerate ancient human violence as it was a result of his ignorance and savagery, but what surprises us is that modern human has become more extreme in resorting to violence and using its multiple tools.

Human violence against his brother in humanity, government violence against citizens, and citizen violence against governments may be said to be repeated before the establishment of modern political systems, where the violence of governments replaced the violence of the governed and with their consent when governments began to use violence in accordance with established and agreed laws. 

But people often rebel against these governments when they start to serve their own interests and not to serve the interests of their citizens. 

But when governments serve the interests of the people, most of the people are willing to renounce the use of violence and its tools and to delegate governments to do so.

When this equation is breached and when people revolt, governments use their authority to engage in violence against them. 

When revolutions occur, people demand governments to respond to their demands, not vice versa. This is what we have recently seen in the "yellow jackets" revolution in France. 

Revolutions have many causes that may be political and social leading to rebellion and revolution and may turn into chaos if the revolution is not rational and organized, and not led by the wise, but by the mobs controlled by the herd mentality and easy to exploit by parties with interests and plans.

The Arab people were no exception among the peoples of the world, they rebelled against the Ottoman rule then against the colonial powers that occupied most of the Arab countries under various allegations, and after a period of relative stability, the Arab people began to suffer from the injustice of the regimes that came in military coups under bright slogans such as "unity, freedom and socialism", slogans that nothing of it have been achieved, but it have led to more division, authoritarianism and class inequality, which are to some extent slogans similar to the slogans of the former totalitarian communist regimes that fell with its slogans.

In 2010 and 2011, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt witnessed what was described as the Arab spring revolution. 

Although the Tunisian revolution was somewhat "a model" when former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali gave up power after telling people, "Now I understand you", However, the "revolution" in Libya against the rule of Muammar al-Gaddafi has plunged that Arab country into a cycle of violence that is still till now, but Egypt has not yet achieved national reconciliation that could prevent the return of events that led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak from power.

As for what happened in Syria, we all know the extent of the devastation, destruction, killing and displacement that has happened in the Arab country and its people because of the refusal of the Assad family's regime to accept the demands of the people, which opened the way for the intervention of Iran and its sectarian militias in addition to Russia and other global and regional powers.

What happened in Yemen is another example of the absurdity of the rebellion against the legitimate authority, especially by a minority dependent on Iranian orders, which not only taken power, but confiscated the majority opinion.

In the Sudanese case, and in the last protests in which between 37-45 people were killed and about 1,000 wounded according to different estimates.

President Omar al-Bashir appeared with his familiar stick to accuse some " traitors, agents, mercenaries and infiltrators" and threatens to kill them, but he eased his tone when he decided to form a fact - finding committee on a road map to emerge from the crisis, and he promised that this year will witness an increase in salaries and a retention of support for many goods.

In addition, he promised to hold elections in 2020 through free and fair conditions, inviting all political powers to prepare well to participate in it. 

But the countdown of changing seems to have begun in a country that witnessed more than seven military coups since 1956, a country is described as an Arab food container while its inhabitants suffer from poverty, a country that separated from its south, although Bashir himself pledged in one of his letters one day that he will continue the war against the rebels " Until God inherits the earth and what is on it", a country still suffering from rebellion in Darfur, a country that its political Alliances are like quicksand, a country where more than 22 political parties of different ideologies, religious and mystical methods. 

Then, why did President Omar al-Bashir's promises come late? why he failed to read graffiti and didn't benefit from the lessons of the Arab spring revolutions? why he still clings to power after about 30 years after accessing to power in a military coup in 1989? And why did not he know when people would revolt and why? 

What we hope is that the brotherly Sudan will pass through this crisis peacefully, that our Arab world has enough problems. 

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